About Department

The Department of Medical Biochemistry was created to satisfy the requirements of Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. Biochemistry, one of the core components of Basic Medical Sciences, provides knowledge that forms part of the foundation of medical education and practice. The Department is responsible for teaching and research of Medical Biochemistry in the College of Health Sciences. Indeed, biochemistry lectures are integrated with anatomy and physiology for adequate correlation with clinical scenarios. The aim and objectives of the Department of Medical Biochemistry are:


The aim of Department of Medical Biochemistry is to prepare medical students for professional practice by providing a sound knowledge of basic biochemistry required to solve common clinical scenarios.


The following objectives are set to achieve the above aim:

  1. To provide medical graduates with sufficient knowledge of biochemistry for medical education
  2. To introduce students to simple clinical applications of biochemistry
  3. To provide medical graduates with a general knowledge of research in biochemistry
  4. To produce medical graduates with sound knowledge of biochemistry to meet international standard
  5. To produce medical graduates with sound ethical behavior
  6. To engage in biochemical research tailored towards solving clinical problems.

Administrative Staff

  • List here

Academic Staff

  • Taofeek O. Ajiboye, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Ilorin)– Senior Lecturer
  • Adeseye Adeyiga, MD– Lecturer II
  • Rafiat Ajala-Lawal, MBBS (Ilorin)– Lecturer II

Technical Staff

  • Najeeb O. Aliyu, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Ilorin)– Laboratory Technologist


Introduction to Biochemistry and its importance in medicine
Organic reactions
What is organic reaction; the rules for going from organic chemistry to biochemistry;

chemical logic: homolytic and electrolytic cleavage; nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions in biological system;

Group transfer reactions: acyl group transfer, phosphoryl group transfer and glycosyl group transfer

Oxidation-reduction reactions

Elimination, isomerization and rearrangement reactions

Reactions that make and break carbon bonds: aldol condensation; claisen-ester condensation; decarboxylation of b-keto acid;

Introduction to Biochemistry Laboratory
Chemical kinetics and orders of reactions
Elementary thermodynamics
Analytical Biochemistry
Centrifuge, spectrophotometer, chromatography, electrophoresis
Solutions, dilutions and calibration curve
Preparation of solutions: preparation of solutions of mass/volume concentrations; preparation of solutions of %mass/volume (%w/v) concentrations; preparation of molar solutions;

Dilutions: preparation of solutions and calibration curve, preparation of serial dilutions/calibration curve

pH and Buffer preparations
Determinations of pH and preparation of buffers: measurement of pH of biological fluids using pH meter and pH indicator paper; measurement of pH of series of solutions;

Buffer: determination of buffering capacity; preparation of buffer systems and effect of addition of acids/bases and dilutions with distilled water; preparation of mixture of different ratio (volume) of equimolar concentrations of a weak organic acid and its salt and the effect of addition of an acid; determination of pKa of a weak acid; determination of pKa of acetic acid

Properties of water: hydrogen bonding; Physical properties of water, solutes, micelles and hydrophobic interactions, amphipathic compounds, colligative properties, dissociation of water and pH scale.

Buffers: Hernderson-Hasselbalch equation, buffer systems of blood and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, blood buffer calculations

Measurement of pH, water metabolism, homeostatic controls, water and osmolality controls, electrolyte balance (sodium, potassium and chloride)

Acid-base balance: disorder of acid-base balance, respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis

Structures and chemistry of carbohydrates
Introduction to carbohydrates, carbohydrate nomenclature, reactions of carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycogen, starch
Specific reactions of carbohydrates
Qualitative tests for carbohydrates: Molisch’s test; iodine test; Fehling’s test; Benedict’s test; picric acid test; Barfoed’s test; Bial’s test; Seliwanoff’s test; Mucic acid test; osazone test; rapid furfural test; Trommer’s test

Quantitative test for carbohydrates: Estimation of glucose-Benedict’s titrimetric method; Estimation of total sugars by ferricyanide method; Estimation of reducing sugars-Nelson and Somogyi method; Reducing sugars by dinitrosalicylate (DNS) method; Estimation of blood glucose by o-toludine method; Glucose estimation by glucose oxidase method; Estimation of total sugars by phenol sulphuric acid method; Estimation of liver glycogen; Estimation of blood lactic acid; Estimation of pyruvate; Estimation of protein bound carbohydrates (glycoproteins); Estimation of protein bound hexose; estimation of protein bound hexosamine; Estimation of protein bound sialic acid

Structures and chemistry of amino acids and proteins
Chemistry: Classification, acid-base properties, functional significance of R-groups, optical properties, the peptide bond

Protein structure and analysis: Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, forces controlling structures, quaternary structure, complex proteins, clinical significance, N-terminal analysis of proteins, protease digestion for peptide generation, C-terminal analysis of proteins, chemical digestion of proteins, size exclusion chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, electrophoresis of proteins, centrifugation of proteins.

Haemoglobin and myoglobin: myoglobin, haemoglobin, role of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, the haemoglobin genes and haemoglobinopathies

Structures and chemistry of fatty acids and lipids
Chemistry: Role of biological lipids, basic biochemistry of fatty acids, nomenclature, reactions of fatty acids, physiologically relevant fatty acids, w3and w6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

Basic structures of complex lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, plasminogens, sphingolipids,

Specific reactions of amino acids and proteins
Qualitative tests for amino acids: Ninhydrin test; Xanthoproteic test; Millon’s test; Hopkin’s-Cole test; Pauly test; Ehrlich’s test; Sakaguchi test; Diazo reaction test; Fohl’s reaction test; Nitroprusside test; Biuret’s test;

Quantitative test for amino acids: Estimation of glycine-sorenson formal titration; estimation of amino acid by ninhydrin; estimation of phenylalanine; estimation of tryptophan; estimation of tyrosine; estimation of total serum proteins and albumin/globulin ratio biuret method; estimation of protein concentration using Lowry’s method, Bradford method and Biccinchonic acid method

Fatty acids and lipids
Qualitative tests for lipids: solubility test; Specific gravity of fats and oil; acrolein test for glycerol; qualitative test for the presence of fatty acids by titrimetric method; test for unsaturated fatty acids; qualitative estimation of cholesterol by Liebermann-Burchard method;

Extraction of total lipids: Bloor’s method; Folch’s method; Grey’s method of extracting phosphatidylinositol phosphate;

Acid value of fats and oils; Iodine value of fats and oils; Saponification value of fats and oils; estimation of triglycerides in plasma; estimation of phospholipids in plasma; estimation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma; estimation of esterified fatty acids in plasma; estimation of cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions in plasma; high density lipoprotein assay; low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein assays; estimation of cholesterol by Zak’s method; thin layer chromatography of phospholipids; two dimensional thin layer chromatography

Introduction, composition of biological membranes, activities of biological membranes, transmembrane proteins classes, membrane channels, membrane transporters, ATPase family of transporters, sodium-potassium ATPases, ion channels, ligand-gated ion channels, calcium channels,the ABC family of transporters, the solute carrier family of transporters,

Clinical significances of transporter defects: cystinuria, Hartnup disorder

Glycoproteins (clinical correlations): introduction to glycoproteins, nucleotide sugar synthesis, mechanism of protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation and Mucin-type O-glycans, O-Mannosylation), hexosamine (O-GlcNAc) biosynthesis pathway (HBP), O-GlcNAcylation in insulin resistance, O-GlcNAcylation & glucose homeostasis, O-GlcNAcylation in the regulation of gene expression, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins (GPI-linkage), clinical significances of glycoproteins, clinical significances of defective glycoprotein degradation, carbohydrate recognition (lectins), congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)

Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans: glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), characteristics of GAGs, hyaluronans, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate, heparin and heparin sulphate, keratin sulphate, proteoglycans, clinical significances of tetrasaccharides synthesis, clinical significances of glycosaminoglycan degradation, The mucopolysaccharides

The extracellular matrix: Introduction, collagens, clinical significances of collagen disorders, fibrillins and elastins, fibrinonectin, laminins, integrins, glycosaminoglycan, proteoglycan

Protein, organelle and cell turn over: introduction to protein and cellular turnover processes, ubiquitin and protein ubiquitylation, protein neddylation, SUMO family of ubiquitin-like proteins, autophagy, mitophagy,

Apoptosis: introduction, apoptosis inducing caspases, inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP), mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway and death receptor apoptosis pathway

Structures and chemistry of nucleic acids
Chemistry of nucleic acids: Introduction to nucleic acids, nucleic acid structure and nomenclature, adenosine derivatives, guanosine derivatives, nucleotide derivatives in tRNAs, nucleotide analogs, polynucleotides, the structure of DNA, thermal properties of the double helix,

Analytical tools for DNA study: chromatography, electrophoresis

Nucleic acid
Isolation of nucleic acids from biological samples; isolation of DNA from blood; isolation of RNA from yeast; agarose gel electrophoresis; RNA gel electrophoresis; quantitation of DNA; determination of RNA by Orcinol method; quantitative estimation of DNA and RNA by spectrophotometric method; determination of melting temperature and base composition of DNA from thermal denaturation characteristics; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) western blotting
Immune system
Innate immunity, components of immune system and definitions of key terms, acquired or adaptive immunity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, distinguishing self from non-self, molecules and chemical processes of the immune system
Structure, types, functions, antigen-antibody reactions, monoclonal antibodies: diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents, recognition of infected cell receptors
B-Cells clonal selection and proliferation
Antibody diversity and immunoglobulin genes
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes
The alternate pathway, the classical pathway, the lectin pathway
Immunological laboratory methods
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence
Thiamine pyrophosphate; lipoic acid; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; flavin adenine dinucleotide and Coenzyme A; biotin
Co-enzyme structure and functions
Structures and functions of thiamine pyrophosphate; lipoic acid; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; flavin adenine dinucleotide and Coenzyme A; biotin
Biochemical catalysis of enzymes

Nomenclature: recommended name and systemic name

Classifications: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases and ligases

Properties of enzymes: active sites, catalytic efficiency, specificity, holoenzymes, regulation, location within the cell

Modes of actions: energy changes during reaction, free energy of activation, rate of reaction, alternate reaction pathway

Chemistry of active sites: transition-state stabilization, other mechanisms, visualization of the transition state

Factors affecting reaction velocity: substrate concentration (maximal velocity, hyperbolic shape of the enzyme kinetic curve), temperature, pH (effect on ionization of the active site, on enzyme denaturation, pH varies for different enzymes,)

Enzyme kinetics: Michaelis-Menten kinetics (relative concentrations of E and S, steady-state assumption [ES] and initial velocity)

Important conclusion about Michaelis-Menten kinetics: characteristics of Km (small Km and large Km), relationship of velocity to enzyme concentration, order of reaction, Lineweaver-Burk Plot

Inhibition of enzyme activity: competitive inhibition (effect on Vmax, on Km, Lineweaver-Burk plot and statin drugs as examples of competitive inhibitors), Non-competitive inhibition (effect on Vmax, on Km, Lineweaver-Burk plot and examples of non-competitive inhibitors)

Regulation of enzyme activity: Regulation of allosteric enzymes (homotropic effectors and heterotropic effectors), regulation of enzymes by covalent modification (phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, response of enzyme to phosphorylation, induction and repression of enzyme synthesis

Enzymes in clinical diagnosis: alteration of plasma enzymes levels in disease states, plasma enzymes as diagnostic tools, isoenzymes and diseases of the heart (quaternary structure of isoenzymes and diagnosis of myocardial infections)

enzymes and diagnosis
Determination of β-amylase activity in saliva; investigation of influence of pH on amylase activity; determination of invertase activity in yeast; determination of aldolase activity; determination of lipase activity in serum; determination of lactate dehydrogenase in serum; determination of malate dehydrogenase in serum; determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity; determination of alanine aminotransferase activity; determination of alkaline phosphatase activity; determination of acid phosphatase activity; determination of Km; demonstration of enzyme inhibition
Practical on coenzymes
Retinol and carotenes in serum; vitamin A; vitamin C; vitamin E; extraction of vitamin E from plasma;
Introduction to Nutrition
Liposoluble vitamins: A, D, E, K, carotenoids

Hydrosoluble vitamins: Thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine (B6), biotin, cobalamin (B12), folic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

Trace Elements
Biochemical functions of trace elements

Calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulphur, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc

Defects in metal metabolism
Menkes disease, Wilson disease, hemochromatosis
Food preservatives and adverse effects
Benzoic acid; sorbic acid and potassium sorbate; hydrogen peroxide; AF-2[2-(furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide]
Nutrition and disease
Nutrition and disease I: Protein calorie malnutrition, biochemical changes in kwashiorkor and biochemical changes in marasmus, role of protein deficiency in growth and development, consequences on organs and in particular brain growth

Nutrition and disease II: vitamin A deficiency (retinols, b-carotene, night blindness), vitamin D deficiency (calciferol; ricket), vitamin E (tocopherols; anemia), vitamin K deficiency (phylloquinone), vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine; beriberi), vitamin B2 deficiency (riboflavin), vitamin B3 deficiency (niacin; pellagra), vitamin B6 deficiency (pyridoxine), vitamin B6 deficiency (folic acid; megaloblastic anemia), vitamin B12 deficiency (cobalamin, pantothenic acid), vitamin H deficiency (biotin), vitamin C (ascorbic acid; scurvy)

Nutrition and disease III:

Consequences of overnutrition: obesity, overweight, consequences of obesity and overweight

Consequences of starvation

Nutrition and cancer

Dietary fibre and diseases

Diet and dental diseases

Carbohydrate metabolisms
Carbohydrate metabolism I: glycolysis (regulating blood sugar), digestion of dietary carbohydrates, the energy derived from glycolysis, reactions of glycolysis, anaerobic glycolysis, regulation of glycolysis, glucose metabolism and cancer (The Warburg effect and The Hypoxia-induced pathway, the glucose-fatty acid cycle

Carbohydrate metabolism II: metabolic fates of pyruvate, lactate metabolism, glucose role in xenobiotic metabolism (glucuronate) regulation of blood glucose levels, role of kidney in blood glucose control, glucose transporters, ethanol metabolism Fructose metabolism, galactose metabolism, gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism (glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, regulation of glycogenolysis and glycogenesis and clinical significance of glycogen metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway

Inborn Errors of Carbohydrate Metabolism
Essential fructosuria, fructose intolerance, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase deficiency, pyruvate kinase deficiency, haemolytic anaemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, galactosemia (type 1 – 3), glycogen storage disease (type 0, I -IX), GLUT 1 deficiency syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease
Introduction: What is Obesity?, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, epigenetics and obesity, hypothalamic control of appetite, obesity and cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes, role of gut bacteria in obesity, a viral link to obesity?
Metabolic syndrome
Introduction to metabolic syndrome, genetic factors in metabolic syndrome, metabolic disruptions in metabolic syndrome, the role of obesity in metabolic syndrome
Amino acids metabolisms
Amino acid metabolism I: Introduction, intestinal uptake of amino acids, essential versus non-essential amino acids. Biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids (glutamate and aspartate, alanine and glucose-alanine cycle, cysteine and methionine, tyrosine, ornithine and proline, serine, glycine, aspartate/asparagine and glutamate/glutamine. Amino acids catabolism (glutamine/glutamate and aspartate/asparagine, alanine, arginine, ornithine and proline, serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine methionine, leucine, isoleucine, valine (branched chain amino acids), disorders of branched chain amino acid metabolism, leucine signalling and metabolic regulation, phenylalanine and tyrosine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan

Amino acid metabolism II: Tyrosine-derived neurotransmitters, tryptophan-derived neurotransmitters, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamate, histamine from histidine, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and function, creatine biosyntheisis, glutathione function, polyamine biosynthesis

Amino acid metabolism III (nitrogen metabolism and urea cycle): introduction to nitrogen metabolism, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthetase and glutaminase, digestive tract nitrogen, essential versus nonessential amino acids, the urea cycle, regulation of the urea cycle, glutamate and glutamine: nitrogen homeostasis in the brain, branched-chain amino acid metabolism: neuronal nitrogen homeostaisis

Heme and porphyrin metabolism: introduction, porphobilinogen and heme biosynthesis, regulation of heme biosynthesis, heme metabolism, the hyperbilirubinemia and porphyrias, differential diagnosis: various causes of microcytic anemia

Protein synthesis
Introduction, historical perspectives, the genetic code, characterization of tRNAs, amino acid activation, the Wobble hypothesis, order of events, initiator tRNAs and initiation codons, initiation factors, activities of eIF-3, specific steps in initiation, the eIF-2 cycle, role of the mRNA poly(A) tail in initiation, internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation, regulation of translation initiation: the eIF2α kinases

Elongation, termination, incorporation of selenium, regulation of eIF-4E activity, regulation of translation by heme, regulation of translation by interferons, regulation of translation by iron, prokaryotic protein synthesis inhibitors: antibiotics, eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitors: toxins inhibitors of protein synthesis

Inborn errors of amino acids and protein metabolism
Maple syrup urine disease MSUD), hereditary tyrosinemia, phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, urea cycle defects, amino acid transport defects: hartnup disorder, cystinuria, homocystinuria, homocysteinemia, methylmalonic acidemias/acidurias, creatine deficiency syndrome, the porhyrias, disorders in bilirubin metabolism
Nucleic acid metabolisms
Introduction, activation of ribose-5-phosphate, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, regulation of purine synthesis, catabolism and salvage of purine nucleotides, clinical significances of purine metabolism, synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, synthesis of thymine nucleotides, clinical relevance of tetrahydrofolate, regulation of pyrimidine synthesis, catabolism and salvage of pyrimidine nucleotides, clinical significances of pyrimidine metabolism, formation of deoxyribonucleotides, regulation of dNTP formation, inter-conversion of the nucleotides of ribose 5-phosphate, purine nucleotide biosynthesis,
Blood lipids and lipid metabolisms
Lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation: Lipid digestion, mobilization of fat stores, cellular uptake of fatty acids, roles of fatty acid binding proteins (FABP), mitochondrial b-oxidation reactions, energetics of mitochondrial b-oxidation reactions, minor alternative fatty acid oxidation reactions, peroxisomal b-oxidation reactions, microsomal w-oxidation reactions, phytanic acid a-oxidation reactions, propionyl CoA oxidation, regulation of fatty acid metabolism, the glucose-fatty acid cycle, clinical aspects of fatty acid metabolism, synthesis and utilization of the ketones, regulation of ketogenesis, metabolic and clinical significances of ketone bodies

Cholesterol metabolism: introduction, biosynthesis of cholesterol, regulation of cholesterol synthesis, proteolytic regulation of HMG-CoA reductase, utilization of cholesterol, cytochrome p450 enzymes in cholesterol metabolism, regulation of cellular sterol content (SREBP), serum cholesterol values, treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Bile acid synthesis, functions and metabolism: bile acid synthesis, regulation of bile acid homeostasis, bile acids as metabolic regulators

Lipoproteins: intestinal uptake of lipids, composition of lipoprotein complexes, lipid profile values, classification of apolipoproteins, apolipoprotein A – IV and control of feeding behaviours, chylomicrons, VLDLs, IDLs and LDLs, high density lipoproteins (HDLs), antioxidants and antinflammatory activities of HDLs, therapeutic benefits of elevating HDLs, lipoprotein receptors, lipoprotein-associated phosphilapase A2 (Lp-PLA2), clinical significance of lipoprotein metabolism, lipoprotein(s) and atherogenesis, hyperlipidemia, hypolipidemia, pharmacological interventions

w3,6 fatty acids and functions: w3,6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), synthesis of w3,6 PUFAs, mechanism of w3 fatty acid biological activities, clinical significance of w3,6 –PUFAs, resolvins, protectins, maresins, w3 PUFA and brain function, series 1 eicosanoids from omega fats, w3 PUFA and regulation of lipid homeostasis, bioactivities of DHA metabolites

Bioactive lipids and lipid receptor: Introduction, bioactive fatty acids and their receptors, GPR34, GPR35, FFAR1 (GPR40), FFAR3 (GPR41), FFAR2 (GPR43), GPR55, GPR84, HCA1 (GPR81), HCA2 (GPR109A), HCA3 (GPR109B), GPR119, FFAR4 (GPR120): obesity and diabetes, fatty acid amide OEA binds GPR119, fatty acid amides and cellular signalling, platelet activating factor (PAF), fatty acid esters of hydroxyl fatty acids (FAHFA), fat transports and scavenger receptors, phospholipase A (PLA) family, lysophospholipids (LPLs), sphingosine 1-phosphate (SIP), eicosanoids and derivatives, anti-inflammatory lipid receptors, ceramides, the eicosanoids

Lipids derived inflammatory modulators: actions of aspirin, biosynthesis of lipoxins, biological activities of the lipoxins, the resolvins, protectins and maresins

Endocannabinoids: introduction, endocannabinoid receptors, synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids, endocannabinoids in the CNS and control of feeding behaviours, endocannabinoids in peripheral energy homeostasis, endocannabinoids in obesity

Metabolism of lipids: Triglycerides, phospholipids, w3,6 PUFAs, sphingolipids and ceramides, eicosanoids, bioactive lipids and lipid receptors, lipid-derived modulators of inflammation, cholesterol, bile acids

Fatty acids and triglyceride metabolism: fatty acid synthesis, origin of acetyl CoA for fat synthesis

Regulation of fatty acid synthesis: Acetyl CoA carboxylase, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, additional regulatory processes, ChREBP: master lipid regulator in liver, elongation and desaturation of fatty acids, triglyceride synthesis, lipin genes: TAG synthesis and transcriptional regulation, phospholipid structure, phospholipid metabolism, plasmalogen synthesis, w3,6 PUFAs, eicosanoid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism

Sphingolipids and ceramide metabolism: synthesis of sphingosine and the ceramides, sphngomyelin synthesis and metabolism, metabolism of the ceramides, ceramides and insulin resistance, the glycosphingolipids, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signal transduction, clinical significances of sphnigolipids

Eicosanoids (PGs, TXs, LTs and LXs,): Introduction, synthesis of the eicosanoids (prostanglandin and thromboxane synthesis, leukotrienes), lipoxin synthesis, eicosanoid receptors, eicosanoid and inflammatory responses, lipid-derived modulators of inflammation

Inborn errors of fatty acids and lipid metabolism
Inborn errors in bile acid synthesis, hyperlipoproteinemias, familial hypercholesterolemia, Niemann-Pick disease type C1, Niemann-Pick disease type C2, Tangier disease, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, hypolipoproteinemias

Refsum disease: Defective a-oxidation, disorder of mitochondrial b-oxidation, disorders in carnitine-mediated transport and carnitine uptake

Generation of Metabolic Energy
TCA cycle and pyruvate dehydrogenase: Introduction to pyruvate metabolism and the TCA Cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), regulation of the PDH Complex, reactions of the TCA cycle, TCA cycle enzyme defects associated with cancer, regulation of the TCA cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation: Introduction, complexes of the electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis, stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation, regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, energy from cytosolic NADH, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and obesity, brown adipose tissue and heat generation, other biological oxidations

Oxidative phosphorylation diseases
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged Red fiber disease (MERRF), Alpers disease, Friedreich Ataxia: a trinucleotide repeat expansion disease, Leigh Syndrome
Central metabolic pathway
DNA metabolism
Introduction, structure of DNA, composition of eukaryotic genomes, chromatin structure, DNA methylation/demethylation and chromatin structure, histone modifications regulating chromatin structure, the eukaryotic cell cycle, DNA replication, additional DNA polymerase activities, telomere replication: implications for aging and disease, post-replicative nucleotide modifications, DNA methylation: role in genome imprinting, DNA recombination, DNA transposition, repair of damaged DNA, chemotherapies targeting DNA replication
RNA metabolism
Introduction, classes of RNA polymerases, mechanisms of RNA polymerases, processes of transcription, post-transcriptional processing of RNAs, RNA splicing, clinical significance of alternative and aberrant splicing, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), RNA editing, RNA methylation and demethylation, pseuouridine in mRNA, catalytically activeRNAs: ribozymes
Defects in nucleotide metabolism
Defects in purine nucleotide metabolism, defects in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism
Peroxisome disorders
Defects in peroxisome biogenesis, adrenoleukodystrophiles
Diseases associated with defective DNA
Defective DNA repair, trinucleotide repeat disorders, diseases associated with imprinted genes
Mucopolysaccharide and glycolipid diseases
Mucopolysaccharidoses, glycolipid and glycoprotein metabolism defects
Defects in hormone biogenesis or function
Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH), Cushing Syndrome, Addison Disease, Graves disease
Common vertebrate hormones: skeletal muscle hormones, pituitary hormones, hypothalamic hormones and peptides, thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone, adipose tissue hormones, hormones and peptides of the gut, pancreatic polypeptide family, placental hormones, gonadal hormones, adrenal cortical hormones, adrenal medullary hormones, liver hormones, kidney hormones, cardiac hormones, pineal hormones
Steroid Hormones
Introduction to the steroid hormones, reactions of steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex, functions of the adrenal steroid hormones, regulation of adrenal steroid synthesis, clinical significance of defective adrenal steroidogenesis, gonadal steroid hormones, steroid hormone receptors
Thyroid Hormones
Introduction to the thyroid hormones, thyroid hormones, hypo-and hyperparathyroidism, steroid and thyroid hormone receptors
Peptide Hormones
Structure and function of hormones, receptors for peptide hormones, basics of peptide hormones, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the glycoprotein hormone family (the gonadotropins: LH, FSH, hCG; thyroid stimulating hormone: TSH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) family (adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH, POMC-derived melanocortins & feeding behaviour), the posterior pituitary hormones (vasopressin and oxytocin), the growth hormone family: growth hormone (GH), human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS), prolactin (PRL). the pancreatic polypeptide family: PP, PYY, NPY, Melanin-Concentrating Hormone, MCH, The Orexins, Gastrointestinal Hormones and Peptides, Adipose Tissue Hormones and Cytokines, Irisin: Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hormone, Natriuretic Hormones, Renin-Angiotensin System Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Calcitonin Family, Erythropoietin, EPO, The Pancreatic Hormones (Insulin and Glucagon, Somatostatin, Amylin)
Hormone Deficiency
Methods of hormone assay
Sickle cell anaemia
Metabolisms of foreign compounds
Introduction; Principles of xenobiotics (Biotransformation); Hydrolysis; Reduction; Oxidation; Conjugation; factors affecting the metabolism of foreign compounds: species differences, genetic differences, age, hormonal control of drug metabolism, effect of disease on drug metabolism, dietary factors, environmental factors,
Induction of microsomal
Medico-legal: blood urine and sweat test
Recent development in forensic techniques
Introduction to molecular biology
Molecular tools in medicine I – II
Introduction to molecular medicine; Common enzymes of molecular biology; Description of restriction endonucleases, DNA sequencing; Background to cloning; Cloning of complimentary DNA (cDNA); Cloning of genomic DNA; Cloning of genomic DNA in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs); Analysis of cloned genes; Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related techniques, Ligase chain reaction (LCR), Microarray analysis, Transgenesis, Gene therapy
Biochemistry of nerve impulse transmission
Overview of human nervous system, autonomic nervous system, introduction to neurotransmitters, neurotransmitters, nerve cell action potentials and synaptic transmission, neuromuscular transmission, neurotransmitter receptors, glutamate, the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain, glycine, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), pharmacology of GABA receptors, acetylcholine, cholinergic agonists and antagonists, cholinergic pharmacology, catecholamines: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenergic pharmacology, catecholamine catabolism, dopamine: reward reinforcement and feeding behaviours, serotonin, 5HT, histamine
Opioids and opioid receptors
Introduction to the opioids, endogenous opioids, opioid receptors, opioids and appetite modulation, nutropoids: food-derived opioids and appetite modulation,
Introduction to the endocannabinoids, endocannabinoid receptors, synthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids, endocannabinoids in the CNS and the control of feeding behaviours, endocannabinoids in peripheral energy homeostasis, endocannabinoids in obesity
Metabolic antagonism in neurochemistry